Fatima Jinnah was a Pakistani dental surgeon, biographer, stateswoman and one of the leading founders of Pakistan.
After obtaining a dental degree from University of Calcutta, she became a close associate and an adviser to her older brother Muhammad Ali Jinnah who later became the first Governor General of Pakistan. A strong critic of the British Raj, she emerged as a strong advocate of the two nation theory and a leading member of the All-India Muslim League. After the independence of Pakistan, Jinnah co-founded the Pakistan Women's Association which significantly played an integral role in the settlement of the migrants in the newly formed country. After the death of her brother, she continued to remain a prominent philanthropist, but did not remain politically active until 1965 when she participated in the presidential election against military dictator Ayub Khan, only to lose the primary because of election rigging by the military.
After battling a long illness, Jinnah died in Karachi on 9 July 1967. She remains one of the most honoured leaders in Pakistan. Her legacy is associated with her support for civil rights, her struggle in Pakistan Movement and her devotion to her brother. Referred as Māder-e Millat ("Mother of the Nation") and Khātūn-e Pākistān (Urdu: — "Lady of Pakistan"), many institutions and public spaces have been named in her honour.